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The most common part of the urine tract to get an infection is the bladder; an infection here is called "cystitis". This creates inflammation and sensitivity of the bladder lining and can also affect the urethra.
The most common cause of UTI's is bacteria entering the bladder through the urethra. This occurs because the entrances to the urethra, vagina and anus are very close together allowing easy access to the bladder. The commonest bacteria which cause cystitis are E coli; these are found in large quantities in the bowel where they do no harm. Urine normally contains no bacteria but, if these germs do get into the bladder, they can cause cystitis. Yeast and fungi can be other causes. Usually the body flushes out the bacteria when you pass urine although this may not always happen.